GIS Geographic Information Systems
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are the systems which designed for analyzing and storing geographic data. Their applications enable users to analyze geographic information in addition to editing maps data so they can get the results of their researches. GIS can be defined as the collection of methods or technologies which are used for underlying geographic concepts. In this article we will discuss GIS to know more about it and its applications in everyday life.
Development of GIS
In 1968, Roger Tomlinson was the first person who used Geographic information system in his paper which is called "GIS Regional planning" so, he was known as the father of GIS. GIS was used at the first time for finding the source of Cholera which outbreak in London by John Snow in 1854. The rapid development of GIS started by the end of 20th century as the users started to use various systems of GIS over the internet for transferring and analyzing data. Nowadays Geographic information system is used widely in mapping applications and spatial data which are available all over the world.
GIS provide the ability of updating geographical data of any field automatically with the need of updating this data manually so it manages both time and effort. A powerful decision support system can be created by the integration of GIS and other enterprise solutions such as SAP. GIS has a wide range of application in many fields such as science, industry and business. These applications can be regional planning, crime mapping, public health, natural resources…. etc. the most important applications of GIS will be discussed as follows:
ü Web Mapping: Mapping data can be provided by using GIS applications such as google maps and Bing maps which are used for mapping solutions. These applications present the data in a mapping format which was previously stored by GIS.
ü Urban Planning: It's used for the development of urban by analyzing the urban growth for finding the suitable sites of this growth and also mentioning the factors needed for urban growth.
ü Agricultural Applications: More effective farming programs can be created by using GIS which used for analyzing soil data, determining planting mechanism and protecting the environment.
ü Natural Resources Management: GIS can be used to manage many resources such as food, water, crop yield and agricultural land. The analysis of water resources distribution can be made by using GIS in addition to the usage of GIS in afforestation.
ü Surveying: GIS can be used for preparing digital maps of different areas in addition to measuring the location of objects. As a surveying tool, GIS is used to measure the distance between points which are located on earth's surfaces.
ü Energy Use Planning: GIS can be used as a technique for providing improved services as a real step of saving energy all over the world.
ü Business: GIS is used widely in business for providing customers' information and enhancing company's activity.
ü Industry Needs: GIS is used for many purposes in dairy industry such as production rate, selling rate and shops' location.
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